In the spring and summer of 1943 peasants of Volyn under the leadership of the Galician [Galicia (Polish: Galicja) is a historical and geographic region in Eastern Europe that straddles the modern-day border between Poland and Ukraine – trans.] intelligentsia using bullets, axes and other improvised means assassinated tens of thousands of Poles living in the villages and towns of the region.As with any tragedy of this kind, the reasons and preconditions of that one were woven into a ball. But there were two main ones.In the spring of 1943 the political leadership of the OUN [the Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists of which UPA was a part – trans.], the vast majority of which consisted of Galicians suddenly realised that the Germans might lose the war. So, the new division of Europe was coming about. The prospect of recreating destroyed by the Germans Poland was looming. To prevent Poland’s claim to Volyn because of the presence of the Polish population there, they decided simply to get rid of that population.